Rise in Ozone-Destroying Chemical Despite Ban Puzzles Scientists

The ozone layer in the stratosphere 10-to-40 kilometres above Earth's surface protects life on the planet from deadly ultraviolet radiation

Paul Young, at Lancaster University, UK, said: "The Montreal Protocol has been rightly hailed as our most successful worldwide environmental treaty, so the suggestion that there are possibly continued, unreported emissions of CFCs is certainly troubling and needs further investigation". "Further work is needed to figure out exactly why emissions of CFC-11 are increasing and if something can be done about it soon".

"It is not clear why any country would want to start to produce, and inadvertently release, CFC-11, when cost-effective substitutes have been available for a long while", Watson continued.

CFC-11 still contributes about a quarter of all chlorine - the chemical that triggers the breakdown of ozone - reaching the stratosphere. Global production of CFC-11, which has been used as a refrigerant and in insulating foams, has been banned since 2010 under the Montreal Protocol.

Precise measurements of global atmospheric concentrations of CFC-11 made by NOAA and CIRES scientists at 12 remote sites around the globe show that CFC-11 concentrations declined at an accelerating rate prior to 2002 as expected. However, that decrease is significantly slower than it would be without the new CFC emissions. Then, surprisingly, the rate of decline hardly changed over the decade that followed. After considering a number of possible causes, Montzka and his colleagues concluded that CFC emissions must have increased after 2012.

Measurements from Hawaii indicate the sources of the increasing emissions are likely in eastern Asia.

Either someone's making the banned compound or it's sloppy byproducts that haven't been reported as required, Montzka said.

However, it took many decades for scientists to discover that when CFCs break down in the atmosphere, they release chlorine atoms that are able to rapidly destroy ozone molecules.

BSNL takes on Reliance Jio with Rs 118 prepaid unlimited data plan
According to a report on telecom talk, the plan also offers 1GB 3G data, which is valid throughout the plan validity of 28 days. However, BSNL's offer can be compared with RJio's Rs 98 pack which gives 2GB data in 4G network for a period of 28 days.

"We show that the rate of decline of atmospheric CFC-11 was constant from 2002 to 2012, and then slowed by about 50 percent after 2012", an worldwide team of scientists concluded in a study.

Unreported production of CFC-11 outside certain specific carve-out purposes in the treaty would be a "violation of worldwide law", Weller confirmed, though he said that the protocol is "non-punitive" and the remedy would probably involve a negotiation with the offending party or country. CFC-11 concentrations have declined by 15 percent from peak levels measured in 1993 as a result.

The paper's findings are "environmentally and politically quite serious", Robert Watson, a former NASA scientist who organized bracing flights high into the Antarctic stratosphere to study ozone depletion in the 1980s, said in an emailed statement.

Erik Solheim, head of UN Environment, said: "If these emissions continue unabated, they have the potential to slow down the recovery of the ozone layer".

"This is the first time that emissions of one of the three most abundant, long-lived CFCs have increased for a sustained period since production controls took effect in the late 1980s", they note.

"If the increased emissions were to go away [soon], it's influence on the recovery date for the ozone layer would be minor", he said.

The Montreal Protocol, signed by more than 200 countries and generally regarded as having a good record of compliance, is created to protect the Earth's ozone layer.

Related news:

Hot News

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Chelsea lead Arsenal in Jean Michael Seri pursuit
May 17, 2018 - 02:25
Arsenal are believed to already be in contact with Seri's representatives ahead of a potential move to the Emirates. Both Arsenal and Chelsea are looking for new managers, so we don't expect any deal to culminate in the near future.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Spike Lee slams Trump in expletive-laced monologue at movie premiere
May 17, 2018 - 02:24
Trump said there was blame on both sides for the violence that broke out between white supremacists and counter-protesters. "And that motherf**ker did not denounce the Klan, the alt-right, and those Nazi f**kers", Lee said.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Lewis Hamilton: Mercedes ace details Monaco Grand Prix hopes after testing
May 17, 2018 - 02:10
The 33-year-old said that "at no point" did he think he would lose the race, but insisted he was working hard. Isola also hit out at suggestions the change might have been made to help Mercedes and disadvantage Ferrari .

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top More than 1M chainsaws recalled due to injury hazard
May 17, 2018 - 01:48
The Chicago Electric brand chainsaw has a red-and-black color scheme and " Chicago Electric " printed on the chainsaw handle. Harbor Freight Tools has recalled more than a million 14-inch chainsaws because the power switch can malfunction.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Ramazan begins in Pakistan too, in Bangladesh on Friday
May 17, 2018 - 01:37
Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates along with Australia will observe the commencement of the holy month today. In Bangladesh Ramazan will begin on Friday in the country as the new moon was not sighted this evening .

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top This Well-Meaning Chrome Update Broke Several Apps and Games
May 17, 2018 - 01:16
For that reason, the current Chrome version 66 will no longer automatically mute Web Audio objects. Have you come across any such unintended consequences on Chrome?

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Cent Gets Down with John Travolta 'Just a Lil Bit' in Cannes
May 17, 2018 - 01:14
Travolta was there for the premiere of his new John Gotti biopic Gotti , but also received the first ever Variety Cinema Icon Award.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Zombieland 2 Aiming For 2019 Release With Original Cast
May 17, 2018 - 01:12
However, nearly as noteworthy is the fact that Wernick confirmed that the original cast would be a part of the film. After the film's surprise success, Amazon looked at making it into a series, but it didn't make it past the pilot .

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Kellogg's latest U.S. brand to close door on Venezuela
May 17, 2018 - 01:06
Opposition critics scoffed that the government would quickly plunder the Kellogg plant and ruin its business. Authorities in Venezuela have seized a plant owned by the American cereal manufacturer Kellogg.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Preakness Stakes 2018: Start time, odds, and where to watch
May 17, 2018 - 00:58
Baffert has also overseen two other Preakness wins, and he needs just one more victory in a Triple Crown race to match D. Triple Crown hopeful Justify will start from Post 7 as a prohibitive favorite in the 143 Preakness Stakes on Saturday.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Undercover agents bust attempted meth smuggling operation run through DFW Airport
May 17, 2018 - 00:52
Seven of those arrested are employees for Envoy, a subsidiary of American Airlines. At least one defendant had said he would transport firearms on commercial flights.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Neymar 'scared' ahead of return to the field
May 17, 2018 - 00:49
They are unlikely to sell unless the Spanish club convincingly tops the price they paid to take Neymar to the Parc des Princes . Moreover, the Argentinean is concerned the move, if it were to happen, would make Real a much stronger team.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Instagram Deletes Kim Kardashian's Post Promoting Appetite Suppressing Lollipops
May 17, 2018 - 00:48
When she spoke to Newsbeat about it in March, the 32-year-old said she's been a "body positivity warrior" for a long time. The company's website says the lollipops are created to be taken when people experience food cravings.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Total halts $2 billion gas project in Iran
May 17, 2018 - 00:39
In announcing his withdrawal from the deal, Trump warned companies that they face sanctions if they do business with Iran. It also has significant operations and a large number of shareholders in the United States.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top CBS adds revival of 'Murphy Brown' and new take on 'Magnum PI'
May 17, 2018 - 00:33
Executive producer Dick Wolf's new crime drama is set in NY and stars Jeremy Sisto, Zeeko Zaki, Missy Peregrym and Connie Nielsen. CBS announced its fall schedule Wednesday morning, placing the revived sitcom the behind " Mom " at 9:30 on Thursdays.