Rise in Ozone-Destroying Chemical Despite Ban Puzzles Scientists

The ozone layer in the stratosphere 10-to-40 kilometres above Earth's surface protects life on the planet from deadly ultraviolet radiation

Paul Young, at Lancaster University, UK, said: "The Montreal Protocol has been rightly hailed as our most successful worldwide environmental treaty, so the suggestion that there are possibly continued, unreported emissions of CFCs is certainly troubling and needs further investigation". "Further work is needed to figure out exactly why emissions of CFC-11 are increasing and if something can be done about it soon".

"It is not clear why any country would want to start to produce, and inadvertently release, CFC-11, when cost-effective substitutes have been available for a long while", Watson continued.

CFC-11 still contributes about a quarter of all chlorine - the chemical that triggers the breakdown of ozone - reaching the stratosphere. Global production of CFC-11, which has been used as a refrigerant and in insulating foams, has been banned since 2010 under the Montreal Protocol.

Precise measurements of global atmospheric concentrations of CFC-11 made by NOAA and CIRES scientists at 12 remote sites around the globe show that CFC-11 concentrations declined at an accelerating rate prior to 2002 as expected. However, that decrease is significantly slower than it would be without the new CFC emissions. Then, surprisingly, the rate of decline hardly changed over the decade that followed. After considering a number of possible causes, Montzka and his colleagues concluded that CFC emissions must have increased after 2012.

Measurements from Hawaii indicate the sources of the increasing emissions are likely in eastern Asia.

Either someone's making the banned compound or it's sloppy byproducts that haven't been reported as required, Montzka said.

However, it took many decades for scientists to discover that when CFCs break down in the atmosphere, they release chlorine atoms that are able to rapidly destroy ozone molecules.

Instagram Deletes Kim Kardashian's Post Promoting Appetite Suppressing Lollipops
When she spoke to Newsbeat about it in March, the 32-year-old said she's been a "body positivity warrior" for a long time. The company's website says the lollipops are created to be taken when people experience food cravings.

"We show that the rate of decline of atmospheric CFC-11 was constant from 2002 to 2012, and then slowed by about 50 percent after 2012", an worldwide team of scientists concluded in a study.

Unreported production of CFC-11 outside certain specific carve-out purposes in the treaty would be a "violation of worldwide law", Weller confirmed, though he said that the protocol is "non-punitive" and the remedy would probably involve a negotiation with the offending party or country. CFC-11 concentrations have declined by 15 percent from peak levels measured in 1993 as a result.

The paper's findings are "environmentally and politically quite serious", Robert Watson, a former NASA scientist who organized bracing flights high into the Antarctic stratosphere to study ozone depletion in the 1980s, said in an emailed statement.

Erik Solheim, head of UN Environment, said: "If these emissions continue unabated, they have the potential to slow down the recovery of the ozone layer".

"This is the first time that emissions of one of the three most abundant, long-lived CFCs have increased for a sustained period since production controls took effect in the late 1980s", they note.

"If the increased emissions were to go away [soon], it's influence on the recovery date for the ozone layer would be minor", he said.

The Montreal Protocol, signed by more than 200 countries and generally regarded as having a good record of compliance, is created to protect the Earth's ozone layer.

Related news:

Hot News

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Chelsea lead Arsenal in Jean Michael Seri pursuit
May 17, 2018 - 02:25
Arsenal are believed to already be in contact with Seri's representatives ahead of a potential move to the Emirates. Both Arsenal and Chelsea are looking for new managers, so we don't expect any deal to culminate in the near future.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Lewis Hamilton: Mercedes ace details Monaco Grand Prix hopes after testing
May 17, 2018 - 02:10
The 33-year-old said that "at no point" did he think he would lose the race, but insisted he was working hard. Isola also hit out at suggestions the change might have been made to help Mercedes and disadvantage Ferrari .

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Putin says Russian warships permanently on duty in Mediterranean
May 17, 2018 - 02:07
This will be the first meeting between the leaders since President Putin was re-elected in March. Doval had said, indicating a gradual resetting of ties between India, Russia and China.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Questlove partners with Prince estate for fall orchestral tour
May 17, 2018 - 02:06
The full symphony orchestra will perform at the Fabulous Fox Theatre on October 14 at 7 p.m. Photos and video will also be provided by the estate for the run of shows.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Four UTSA Athletics programs recognized for academic excellence
May 17, 2018 - 01:51
Each year, the NCAA honors selected Division I sports teams by publicly recognizing their latest multiyear NCAA Division I April . The Chippewas have earned a spot in the top 10 in each of the four seasons since the program's resurrection in fall, 2014.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top California DA: Kids shot with crossbows, waterboarded
May 17, 2018 - 01:39
They were also physically abused for a "sadistic objective ", said Solano County Chief Deputy District Attorney Sharon Henry. Neighbors say the grandmother is very loving, taking the children to school and on errands since both parents are in jail.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top IPL 2018: MS Dhoni's daughter Ziva dances to Dwayne Bravo's song
May 17, 2018 - 01:37
IPL 2018 saw the return of Chennai Super Kings to the competition after they completed their two-year ban in the spot-fixing case. And on the occasion of Suresh Raina daughter's birthday, Bravo sang the "Champions" song for Ziva and Gracia.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Ramazan begins in Pakistan too, in Bangladesh on Friday
May 17, 2018 - 01:37
Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates along with Australia will observe the commencement of the holy month today. In Bangladesh Ramazan will begin on Friday in the country as the new moon was not sighted this evening .

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Cent Gets Down with John Travolta 'Just a Lil Bit' in Cannes
May 17, 2018 - 01:14
Travolta was there for the premiere of his new John Gotti biopic Gotti , but also received the first ever Variety Cinema Icon Award.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Zombieland 2 Aiming For 2019 Release With Original Cast
May 17, 2018 - 01:12
However, nearly as noteworthy is the fact that Wernick confirmed that the original cast would be a part of the film. After the film's surprise success, Amazon looked at making it into a series, but it didn't make it past the pilot .

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Iran nuclear accord not ideal, but best to stick with it
May 17, 2018 - 01:08
Canceling nuclear deal between world powers and Iran would be wrong, German Chancellor Angela Merkel said in German Parliament on May 16.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Facebook Gets Voice Posts, Stories Archive, And More
May 17, 2018 - 00:47
The aim is to make it more attractive to people who can't use Stories the way it is now - and therefore don't use it at all. It can also be used to save photos they might want to share later, so they don't have to edit or post them immediately.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top BSNL takes on Reliance Jio with Rs 118 prepaid unlimited data plan
May 17, 2018 - 00:46
According to a report on telecom talk, the plan also offers 1GB 3G data, which is valid throughout the plan validity of 28 days. However, BSNL's offer can be compared with RJio's Rs 98 pack which gives 2GB data in 4G network for a period of 28 days.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top Samsung India To Launch Four New Mid-Range Smartphones On May 21
May 17, 2018 - 00:35
Connectivity options include Wi-Fi 802.11 a/b/g/n, Bluetooth 4.2, USB 2.0 Type-C, 3.5mm headphone-jack, NFC, and Location. There will be a 13MP camera at the back along with an 8MP front camera with 4G support.

isis-killer-beheading-video-story-top CBS adds revival of 'Murphy Brown' and new take on 'Magnum PI'
May 17, 2018 - 00:33
Executive producer Dick Wolf's new crime drama is set in NY and stars Jeremy Sisto, Zeeko Zaki, Missy Peregrym and Connie Nielsen. CBS announced its fall schedule Wednesday morning, placing the revived sitcom the behind " Mom " at 9:30 on Thursdays.